Citizens are providing vast amounts of georeferenced data in the form of in situ data collections as well as interpretations and digitization of Earth-observation (EO) data sets. These new data streams have considerable potential for supporting the calibration and validation of current and future products derived from EO. We provide a general introduction to this growing area of interest and review existing crowdsourcing and citizen science (CS) initiatives of relevance to EO. We then draw upon our own experiences to provide case studies that highlight different types of data collection and citizen engagement and discuss the various barriers to adoption. Finally, we highlight opportunities for how citizens can become part of an integrated EO monitoring system in the framework of the European Union (EU) space program, including Copernicus and other monitoring initiatives.
L See, S Fritz, E Dias, E Hendriks, B Mijling, F Snik, P Stammes, F Vescovi, G Zeug, PP Mathieu, YL Desnos, M Rast. Supporting Earth-Observation Calibration and Validation: A new generation of tools for crowdsourcing and citizen science
published, IEEE Gosci. Remote Sensing Letters, 2016, 4