In this paper we introduce the new concept of directionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth’s surface retrieved from satellite observations. This surface DLER describes Lambertian (isotropic) surface reflection which is extended with a dependence on the satellite viewing geometry. We apply this concept to data of the GOME-2 satellite instruments to create a global database of the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface, providing surface DLER for 26 wavelength bands between 328 and 772 nm as a function of the satellite viewing angle via a second-degree polynomial parameterisation. The resolution of the database grid is 0.25◦ by 0.25◦, but the real, intrinsic spatial resolution varies over the grid from 1.0◦ by 1.0◦ to 0.5◦ by 0.5◦ down to 0.25◦ by 0.25◦ by applying dynamic gridding techniques. The database is based on more than 10 years (2007–2018) of GOME-2 data from the MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites.
The relation between DLER and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) surface reflectance is studied using radiative transfer simulations. For the shorter wavelengths (λ < 500 nm), there are significant differences between the two. For instance, at 463 nm the difference can go up to 6 % at 30◦ solar zenith angle. The study also shows that, although DLER and BRDF surface reflectances have different properties, they are comparable for the longer wavelengths (λ > 500 nm). Based on this outcome, the GOME-2 surface DLER is compared with MODIS surface BRDF data from MODIS band 1 (centred around 645 nm) using both case studies and global comparisons. The conclusion of this validation is that the GOME-2 DLER compares well to MODIS BRDF data and that it does so much better than the non-directional LER database. The DLER approach for describing surface reflectivity is therefore an important improvement over the standard isotropic (non-directional) LER approaches used in the past.
The GOME-2 surface DLER database can be used for the retrieval of atmospheric properties from GOME-2 and from previous satellite instruments like GOME and SCIAMACHY. It will also be used to support retrievals from the future Sentinel-5 UVNS (ultraviolet, visible,near-infrared, and short-wave infrared) satellite instrument.
LG Tilstra, ONE Tuinder, P Wang, P Stammes. Directionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth's surface measured by the GOME-2 satellite instruments
Status: published, Journal: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Volume: 14, Year: 2021, First page: 4219, Last page: 4238, doi: 10.5194/amt-14-4219-2021