This study introduces a technique for four-dimensional pore pressure monitoring using passive image interferometry. Surface-wave velocity changes as a function of frequency are directly linked to depth variations of pore pressure changes through sensitivity kernels. We demonstrate that these kernels can be used to invert time-lapse seismic velocity changes, retrieved with passive image interferometry, for hydrological pore pressure variations as a function of time, depth, and region. This new approach is applied in the Groningen region of the Netherlands. We show good recovery of pore pressure variations in the upper 200 m of the subsurface from passive seismic velocity observations. This depth range is primarily limited by the reliable frequency range of the seismic data.
E. Fokker, E. Ruigrok, R. Hawkins and J. Trampert. 4D Physics-Based Pore Pressure Monitoring Using Passive Image Interferometry
Journal: Geophysical Research Letters, Volume: 50, Year: 2023, First page: 1, Last page: 12, doi: 10.1029/2022GL101254