The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic
eruption in history. It caused a large global cooling during the following year, felt
particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known
as the “year without a summer”. This paper describes an effort made to collect surface
meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years
immediately following the eruption (1815–1817). Although the collection aimed in particular
at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered.
Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data,
recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than fifty sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America, and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level, moreover an additional statistical correction was applied to
take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected dataset, the variance of the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.
Y Brugnara, R Auchmann, S Bronnimann, AFV van Engelen, G van der Schrier, et al.. A collection of sub-daily pressure and temperature observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the
Status: published, Journal: Climate of the Past, Year: 2015, doi: doi:10.5194/cp-11-1027-2015