The European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Explorer satellite Aeolus provides continuous proﬁles of the horizontal line-of-sight wind component globally from space. It was successfully launched in August 2018 with the goal to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP). Aeolus data have already been successfully assimilated into several NWP models and have already helped to signiﬁcantly improve the quality of weather forecasts. To achieve this major milestone the identiﬁcation and correction of several systematic error sources were necessary. One of them is related to small ﬂuctuations of the temperatures across the 1.5 m diameter primary mirror of the telescope which cause varying wind biases along the orbit of up to 8 m s−1. This paper presents a detailed overview of the inﬂuence of the telescope temperature variations on the Aeolus wind products and describes the approach to correct for this systematic error source in the operational near-real-time (NRT) processing. It was shown that the telescope temperature variations along the orbit are due to changes in the top-of-atmosphere reﬂected shortwave and outgoing longwave radiation of the Earth and the related response of the telescope’s thermal control system. To correct for this effect ECMWF model-equivalent winds are used as a reference to describe the wind bias in a multiple linear regression model as a function of various temperature sensors located on the primary telescope mirror. This correction scheme has been in operational use at ECMWF since April 2020 and is capable of reducing a large part of the telescope-induced wind bias. In cases where the inﬂuence of the temperature variations is particularly strong it was shown that the bias correction can improve the orbital bias variation by up to 53 %. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the approach of using ECMWF model-equivalent winds is justiﬁed by the fact that the global bias of model u-component winds with respect to radiosondes is smaller than 0.3 m s−1. Furthermore, this paper presents the alternative of using Aeolus ground return winds which serve as a zero-wind reference in the multiple linear regression model. The results show that the approach based on ground return winds only performs 10.8 % worse than the ECMWF model-based approach and thus has a good potential for future applications for upcoming reprocessing campaigns or even in the NRT processing of Aeolus wind products.
Fabian Weiler, Michael Rennie, Thomas Kanitz, Lars Isaksen, Elena Checa, Jos de Kloe, Ngozi Okunde, and Oliver Reitebuch
. Correction of wind bias for the lidar on board Aeolus using telescope temperatures
Journal: Atmos. Meas. Tech., Volume: 14 (11), Year: 2021, First page: 7167, Last page: 7185, doi: 10.5194/amt-14-7167-2021