Small-magnitude earthquakes induced by gas production in the Groningen field in the Netherlands have prompted the development of seismic risk models that serve both to estimate the impact of these events and to explore the efficacy of different risk mitigation strategies. A core element of the risk modelling is ground-motion prediction models (GMPM) derived from an extensive database of recordings obtained from a dense network of accelerographs installed in the field. For the verification of damage claims, an empirical GMPM for peak ground velocity (PGV) has been developed, which predicts horizontal PGV as a function of local magnitude, ML; hypocentral distance, Rhyp; and the time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the upper 30 m, VS30. For modelling the risk due to potential induced and triggered earthquakes of larger magnitude, a GMPM for response spectral accelerations has been developed from regressions on the outputs from finite-rupture simulations of motions at a deeply buried rock horizon. The GMPM for rock motions is coupled with a zonation map defining frequency-dependent non-linear amplification factors to obtain estimates of surface motions in the region of thick deposits of soft soils. The GMPM for spectral accelerations is formulated within a logic-tree framework to capture the epistemic uncertainty associated with extrapolation from recordings of events of ML ≤ 3.6 to much larger magnitudes.
Julian Bommer, Peter Stafford, Elmer Ruigrok, Adrian Rodriguez-Marek, Michael Ntinalexis, Pauline Kruiver, Ben Edwards, Bernard Dost and Jan van Elk. Ground-motion prediction models for induced earthquakes in the Groningen gas field, the Netherlands
Journal: Journal of Seismology, Volume: 6, Year: 2022, First page: 1157, Last page: 1184, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-022-10120-w