Our physical and physiological theory provides causal explanations of various phenomena in forests. This causal nature of the theory enables versatile applications in forestry and in the research of the interactions between climate change and forests. We treat the effects of thinnings and whole-tree harvesting on wood production and the responses of forest ecosystem to nitrogen deposition in more detail. The forests react to the increasing CO2concentration and also to temperature increase generating feedbacks from forests to climate change. The changes in the carbon storages in forest ecosystems and in the emission of volatile organic compounds are evidently the most important feedbacks from forest ecosystems to the climate change.
P Hari, M Havimo, HS Helmisaari, L Kulmala, E Nikinmaa, T Vesala, J Räisänen, T Petäjä, E Siivola, H Tuomenvirta, J Bäck, J Grace, F Magnani, T van Noije, J Pumpanen, D Stevenson, M Kulmala, S Smolander, I Riipinen, M Dal Maso. How to utilise the knowledge of causal responses?
Year: 2013, Other information:
In: Hari, P., Heliövaara, K., Kulmala, L. (eds), Physical and Physiological Forest Ecology, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 397–469, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5603-8_8