Wet deposition of reduced nitrogen is estimated for the United Kingdom using a Lagrangian long-term, long-range atmospheric transport model. Such long-range transport models are used to develop emission-control strategies to combat environmental acidification in the sensitive regions of the United Kingdom and Europe. These models currently consider the wet deposition as a loss term using scavenging rates and a simple seeder-feeder effect. The seeder-feeder effect is assumed to be the main process producing orographic precipitation since the majority of British Isles annual rainfall falls in frontal events. This paper focuses on the analysis of different parameterisations of the removal process by wet deposition. It is shown that the seeder-feeder effect is very dependent on flow direction. Therefore, a model of directional orographic enhancement of precipitation is developed to simulate this effect. A revised formulation of the wet deposition parameterisation is suggested incorporating the directional orographic precipitation produced with this model. This new formulation also takes into account the larger concentrations of ions dissolved in rain water measured in mountainous areas. Moreover, a new representation of the wet deposition process is developed by considering explicitly the mixing layer's depth calculated in the model.
The results from the atmospheric model, with these revised parameterisations of the wet deposition, are then compared with measured wet deposition of reduced nitrogen. Firstly, with the new directional orographic rainfall, the modelled United Kingdom reduced nitrogen wet deposition budget is still underestimated but an increased correlation with measurements is obtained. Secondly, the inclusion of the calculated mixing layer's depth leads to a considerable improvement in the modelled reduced nitrogen wet deposition budget compared with measurements.
N Fournier, KJ Weston, AJ Dore, MA Sutton. Modelling the wet deposition of reduced nitrogen over the British Isles
published, Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., 2005, 131