Lacking an established methodology to test the potential impact of prospective
extensions to the global observing system (GOS) in real atmospheric cases we developed such a method, called Sensitivity Observing System Experiment (SOSE). For example, since the GOS is non uniform it is of interest to investigate the benefit of complementary observing systems filling its gaps. In a SOSE adjoint sensitivity structures are used to define a pseudo true atmospheric state for the simulation of the prospective observing system. Next, the synthetic observations are used together with real observations from the existing GOS in a state-of-the-art Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model to assess the potential added value of the new observing system.
Unlike full observing system simulation experiments (OSSE), SOSE can be applied to real extreme events that were badly forecast operationally and only requires the simulation of the new instrument.
As such SOSE is an effective tool e.g. to define observation requirements for extensions to the GOS. These observation requirements may serve as input for the design of an operational network of prospective observing systems.
In a companion paper we use SOSE to simulate potential future space borne Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL) scenarios and assess their capability to sample meteorologically sensitive areas not well captured by the current GOS, in particular over the Northern Hemisphere oceans.
GJ Marseille, A Stoffelen, J Barkmeijer. Sensitivity Observing System Experiment (SOSE) - A New Effective NWP-based Tool in Designing the Global Observing System
published, Tellus, 2008, 60